Exámenes Trinity C1 ejemplos
Modelos online Trinity para practicar
Hi there, sweeties!
Hoy en “exámenes Trinity C1 ejemplos” os traemos un artículo muuuuy completo. Considéralo un curso intensivo on-line de Trinity ISE III. Está compuesto de varios exámenes para practicar: tienes un modelo expuesto entero (con sus respuestas al final) y unos links al final del articulo que te llevan a otros ejemplos de examen. Vas a encontrar listening y speaking, reading y writing. Totalmente a tu disposición para practicar. De ésta forma puedes ver cómo es el material que usamos en nuestras clases de preparación Trinity.
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Your presentation (4 min.)
Q&A about your presentation (3 min.)
Collaborative. Don’t you believe that current technological devices are useless in our society? My life was much better before all this modern tech. (3 min.)
Conversation task. What human rights can be improved in young people? What rights can be improved for women? (4 min.)
Firstly, os dejamos un enlace para acceder a un listening parecido a los exámenes Trinity ISE III en Youtube. Then, lo podrás practicar en Youtube. Finally, en nuestras clases lo podrás corregir.
You’re going to hear a talk about aquaculture. You will hear the talk twice. The first time, just listen. Then I’ll ask you to tell me generally what the speaker is talking about. Are you ready?
Listening Trinity ISE III
Can you tell me in one or two sentences what the speaker was talking about?
Now listen to the talk again. This time make some notes as you listen, if you want to. Then I’ll ask you to tell me what arguments the speaker puts forward for and against aquaculture, and whether he comes to a conclusion.
Listening: 2nd time
Are you ready? Now tell me what arguments the speaker puts forward for and against aquaculture and whether he comes to a conclusion. You have one minute to talk.
Recuerda que tienes 2 horas para realizar el reading and writing del examen Trinity ISE III. So, time yourself!
TASK 1 – Long Reading
Read the text below and answer the 15 questions that follow.
The world is running out of sand
When people picture sand spread across idyllic beaches and endless deserts, they understandably think of it as an infinite resource. However, over-exploitation of global supplies of sand is damaging the environment, endangering communities, causing shortages and promoting violent conflict.
Skyrocketing demand, combined with unfettered mining to meet it, is creating the perfect recipe for shortages. Plentiful evidence strongly suggests that sand is becoming increasingly scarce in many regions. For example, in Vietnam domestic demand for sand exceeds the country’s total reserves. If this mismatch continues, the country may run out of construction sand by 2020, according to recent statements from the country’s Ministry of Construction.
This problem is rarely mentioned in scientific discussions and has not been systemically studied. Media attention drew us to this issue. While scientists are making a great effort to quantify how infrastructure systems such as roads and buildings affect the habitats that surround them, the impacts of extracting construction minerals such as sand and gravel to build those structures have been overlooked.
It is essential to understand what happens at the places where sand is mined, where it is used and many impacted points in between in order to craft workable policies. Those questions are being analysed through a systems integration approach that allows better understanding the socioeconomic and environmental interactions over distances and time. Based on what has already been learned, it is safe to say that it is time to develop international conventions to regulate sand mining, use and trade.
Sand and gravel are now the most-extracted materials in the world, exceeding fossil fuels and biomass. It is used for concrete, roads, glass and electronics. Massive amounts of sand are mined for land reclamation projects, shale gas extraction and beach renourishment programs. Recent floods in Houston, India, Nepal and Bangladesh will add to growing global demand for sand.
In 2010, nations mined about 11 billion tonnes of sand just for construction. Extraction rates were highest in the Asia-Pacific region, followed by Europe and North America. In the United States alone, production and use of construction sand and gravel was valued at $8.9 billion in 2016, and production has increased by 24 percent in the past five years.
Moreover, these numbers grossly underestimate global sand extraction and use, according to government agencies uneven record-keeping in many countries may hide real extraction rates.
The negative consequences of overexploiting sand are felt in poorer regions where sand is mined. Extensive sand extraction physically alters rivers and coastal ecosystems, increases suspended sediments and causes erosion.
Research shows that sand mining operations are affecting numerous animal species, including fish, dolphins, crustaceans and crocodiles, it also has serious impacts on people’s livelihoods. Beaches and wetlands buffer coastal communities against surging seas. Increased erosion resulting from extensive mining makes these communities more vulnerable to floods and storm surges.
Sand mining is also probably enhancing saltwater intrusion during the dry season, which threatens local communities’ water and food security.
Potential health impacts from sand mining are poorly characterized but deserve further study. Extraction activities create new standing pools of water that can become breeding sites for malaria-carrying mosquitoes. The pools may also play an important role in the spread of emerging diseases such as Buruli ulcer in West Africa, a bacterial skin infection.
Sand is a common-pool resource – open to all, easy to get and hard to regulate. As a result, we know little about the true global costs of sand mining and consumption.
Demand will increase further as urban areas continue to expand and sea levels rise. Major international agreements such as the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Convention on Biological Diversity promote responsible allocation of natural resources, but there are no international conventions to regulate sand extraction, use and trade.
As long as national regulations are lightly enforced, harmful effects will continue to occur. We believe that the international community needs to develop a global strategy for sand governance, along with global and regional sand budgets. It is time to treat sand like a resource, on a par with clean air, biodiversity and other natural endowments that nations seek to manage for the future
Questions 1-5 (un punto por prengunta)
The text on the previous page has five paragraphs (1-5). Choose the best title for each paragraph from A-F below and write the letter (A-F) on the lines below. There is one more title than you need.
- A. The complexity of this problem is doubtlessly a factor.
- B. Sand is a key ingredient.
- C. The little-known exploitation of sand and its brutal consequences.
- D. The scale of the problem is not widely appreciated.
- E. We hear a lot about the over-extraction of oil, but less about the consequences of the sand trade.
- F. The seemingly never-ending resource.
Questions 6-10 (un punto por pregunta)
Choose the five statements from A-H below that are true according to the information given in the text. Write the letters of the TRUE statements on the lines below (in any order).
- A. Several health issues can stem from sand mining.
- B. By 2020 Vietnam will no longer have construction sand.
- C. The impact of the extraction of sand as well as other construction minerals have been thoroughly analysed by now.
- D. The exploitation of sand brings tougher consequences to the poorer sites where the mineral is mined from.
- E. Damaging effects will linger unless national regulations are strongly enforced.
Questions 11-15 (un punto por pregunta)
Complete sentences 11-15 with a word, phrase or number from the text (maximum three words). Write the word, phrase or number in the space provided.
11. Shortages are being caused not only by the increasing demand but also by the …………………………. mining of sand.
12. Sand mining threatens local communities’ edible food given that it is …………………………intrusion during dry seasons.
13. With the purpose of construction around………………………………… tonnes of sand were mined by nations.
14. Government agencies state that ………………………. in various places might compromise real extraction rates.
15. International conventions must be developed in order to regulate sand mining, as well as its ……………………………
Task 2- Multi-text reading
In this section there are 3 short texts for you to read and 15 questions for you to answer.
Questions 16-20 (un punto por pregunta)
Read questions 16-20 first and then read texts A, B, C and D below the questions. As you read each text, decide which text each question refers to. Choose one letter A, B, C or D and write it on the lines below. You can use any letter more than once.
- determines the usage of the sand?
- specifies regulations to address the problem of illegal sand mining?
- acknowledges that certain cities hold to illegal practices
- mentions the best ways to identify the sand mines
- states the challenges that need to be overcome when sand mining
Down to Earth: India can rely on sand imports till the time it is viable
Reportedly, in order to help states deal with the demand-supply deficit and illegal extraction, the government in March launched the Sand Mining Framework on the basis of MoM’s survey. The Framework also identifies the reasons states have so far failed to tackle illegal sand mining. The MMDR Act makes states responsible to have their own legislation to govern and regulate sand mining. “But there is a lot of going back and forth in deciding the rules. Some 11 of the 14 states we analysed have changed their concession rules in last three to four years.”
Moreover, each state has a different process of identifying sand mines, issuing environmental clearances, and operating and monitoring the mines. In most states, barring Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Tamil Nadu and Telangana, mining companies can apply for environmental clearance only after getting the mining lease. This increases the risk of non-compliance. “The advantage of taking up the clearance by the mining department ensures that the regulations laid down by the government as well the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) are properly followed,” reads the mining framework.
Sand mining is the extraction of sand, mainly through an open pit but sometimes mined from beaches and inland dunes or dredged from ocean and river beds. Sand is often used in manufacturing, for example as an abrasive or in concrete. It is also used on icy and snowy roads, usually mixed with salt, to lower the melting point temperature on the road surface. Sand can replace eroded coastline. Some uses require higher purity than others; for example sand used in concrete must be free of seashell fragments.
Sand mining presents opportunity to extract rutile, ilmenite and zircon, which contain the industrially useful elements titanium and zirconium. These minerals typically occur combined with ordinary sand, then are separated in water by virtue of their different densities, before the sand is redeposited.
Sand mining is a direct cause of erosion, and impacts the local wildlife. Various animals depend on sandy beaches for nesting clutches, and mining has led to the near extinction of gharials (a species of crocodile) in India. Disturbance of underwater and coastal sand causes turbidity in the water, which is harmful for organisms like coral that need sunlight. It can also destroy fisheries, financially harming their operators.
Removal of physical coastal barriers, such as dunes, sometimes leads to flooding of beachside communities, and the destruction of picturesque beaches causes tourism to dissipate. Sand mining is regulated by law in many places, but is often done illegally. Globally, it is a $70 billion industry, with sand selling at up to $90 per cubic yard.
The Sand Mining Blog
Major issues in river sand extraction
While extracting river sand, the following may become more evident:
- Identifying ancient river beds rich in sand and gravel
- Environmental impacts of sand mining on the aquatic ecosystem, channel course, sediment content and replenishment and riparian habitats.
- Governmental regulations that are enforced to keep mining activities within sustainable limits.
- Use of costly mining methods and technologies.
- Involvement of political parties and sand mafias in sand mining
- The most amount aimed to India used to come from Cambodia
- India is one of the largest importers of sand
- Neighbour countries are the most exporters of this material to India
- All the river sand imported by Tamil Nadu was bought by construction companies
- There is mafia illegally lifting sand in rivers in Tamil Nadu
- Tamil Nadu is reluctant to loosen its grip over the golden granules
Questions 21-25 (un punto por pregunta)
Choose five statements from A-H below that are TRUE according to the information given in the texts above. Write the letters of the TRUE statements on the lines below (in any order).
A There is a lack of regulations and promotion of alternative construction materials in the area.
B Mining companies have alternative ways to lower compliance concerning government regulation.
C Any kind of sand can be illegally dredged.
D River sand mining can be detrimental to the environment.
E Sustainability guidelines prescribed by the government change very constantly.
F Sand mining affects tourism.
G This extraction can be expensive.
H It is a challenge to spot the best locations
Questions 26-30 (un punto por pregunta)
The summary notes below contain information from the texts above. Find a word or phrase from texts A-D to complete the missing information in gaps 26-30. Write your answers on the lines below.
World sand demand and its challenges
· Sand, as one of the most accessible natural resources, has been used mostly in 26. …………. as a construction material.
· The most common type of sand is river sand which is encountered in 27. …………..
· India is one of the biggest importer.
· Sand extraction undergoes an extensive process of filtering 28. ……. of it’s properties and materialistic differences of the different type of sand.
Challenges of overexploitation
· This sand river mining effects physical and biological environments of the river system.
· The un-regulated sand mining has rpduced the erosion of the river banks resulting in the 29. ……… of natural landscapes.
· The sand mafia holds tightly to the so-called 30. ………….. as this market generates considerable revenue.
TASK 3 – Reading into writing
Use the information from the four texts you have read to write a report (200-230 words) for a nature magazine. The topic of your report is how sand over-exploitation affects the ecosystem and what can be done to control this kind of mining.
You should plan your report before you start writing. Think about what you want to say and make some notes to help you in this box.
(No marks are given for these planning notes)
Now write your report of 200-230 words. Try to use your own words as far as possible – don’t just copy sentences from the reading texts.
When you have finished your report, spend 2-3 minutes reading through what you have written. Make sure you have answered the task completely. Remember to check how you made use of the reading texts, as well as the language amd organisation of your writing.
TASK 4 – Extended writing
You have been discussing the rise of on-line learning in your class at university. You have been asked to write an essay for your university magazine called the Current Issues in Education discussing on-line learning and traditional classroom instruction.
You should plan your letter before you start writing. Think about what you want to say and make some notes to help you in the box.
(No marks are given for these planning notes)
Now write your essay of 200-230 words.
When you have finished your essay, spend 2-3 minutes reading through what you have written. Make sure you have answered the task completely. Remember to check how you made use of the reading texts, as well as the language amd organisation of your writing.
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